Thursday, September 3, 2020
first Triumvirate Timeline Roman Republic Timeline:Ã First Triumvirate Timeline This first Triumvirate course of events fits inside the End of the Republic time period. The word triumvirate originates from the Latin for three and man thus alludes to a 3-labor structure. The Roman Republican force structure was not regularly a triumvirate. There was a 2-man monarchical component known as the consulship. The two emissaries were chosen yearly. They were the top figures in the political pecking order. Here and there a solitary tyrant was placed accountable for Rome rather than the delegates. The tyrant should keep going for a brief period, however in the later long stretches of the Republic, despots were turning out to be increasingly domineering and less agreeable to leaving their situation of intensity. The primary triumvirate was an informal alliance with the two emissaries in addition to one, Julius Caesar. Year Occasions 83 Sulla upheld by Pompey. Second Mithridatic War 82 Common War in Italy. See Social War. Sulla succeeds at Colline Gate. Pompey wins in Sicily. Sulla orders Murena to stop the war against Mithridates. 81 Sulla tyrant. Pompey massacres Marians in Africa. Sertorius is driven from Spain. 80 Sulla delegate. Sertorius comes back to Spain. 79 Sulla leaves fascism. Sertorius beats Metellus Pius in Spain. 78 Sulla kicks the bucket. P. Servilius battles against privateers. 77 Perperna joins Sertorius. Catulus and Pompey rout Lepidus. Pompey delegated to contradict Sertorius. (See Pennell Chapter XXVI. Sertorius.) 76 Sertorius beats Metellus and Pompey. 75 Cicero quaestor in Sicily. 75-4 Nicomedes wills Bithynia to Rome. (See Asia Minor Map.) 74 Imprint Anthony is provided an order to deal with the privateers. Mithridates attacks Bithynia. (See Asia Minor Map.) sent to manage it. 73 Sparticus uprising. 72 Perperna kills Sertorius. Pompey massacres Perperna and settles Spain. Lucullus battles Mithridates in Pontus. Imprint Anthony loses to Cretan privateers. 71 massacres Spartacus. Pompey comes back from Spain. 70 Crassus and Pompey diplomats 69 Lucullus attacks Armenia 68 Mithridates comes back to Pontus. 67 Lex Gabinia provides Pompey order to take free the Mediterranean of the privateers. 66 Lex Manilia awards Pompey order against Mithridates. Pompey routs him. First Catilinarian Conspiracy. 65 Crassus is made blue pencil. Pompey in the Caucasus. 64 Pompey in Syria 63 Caesar chose Pontifex Maximus. Scheme of Catiline and execution of backstabbers. Pompey in Damascus and Jerusalem. Mithridates kicks the bucket. 62 Passing of Catiline. Clodius contaminates the Bona Dea. Pompey settles the East and makes Syria a Roman region. 61 Pompeys triumph. Clodius preliminary. Caesar is legislative leader of Further Spain. The Allobroges revolt and the Aedui request to Rome. 60 Julius Caesar comes back from Spain. Structures First Triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus. See moreover:: Rundown of Consuls During the PeriodCaesar Timeline for different occasions in the life of Gaius Julius CaesarCaesar and the First Triumvirate Article
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Online shopping for food - Essay Example With the period of developing innovation and web prevalence, promoting has become simpler in light of the fact that clients have a chance to post surveys about items and have others get to it before deciding. Organizations can utilize the surveys to improve their items and create others that coordinate customerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. As an advertising director of Miou Company Ltd, I will analyze writing audit to comprehend attributes of web customers, their general shopping direction, their web-utilization related way of life, and their psychographic qualities. Furthermore, I will assess their inspirations for shopping goods on the web, their impression of the preferences and impediments of shopping on the web for food supplies and situational factors that may evoke online acquisition of staple goods. Miou Company that has a chain of national general stores in Australia means to open an online shopping for food site to counter the test presented by quickly developing web based shopping. One of the primary interesting points in the exploration is looking to comprehend the attributes of web customers. Web customers will in general depend on criticism surveys about items and administrations done by the individuals who have just been served by the organization. As per Zhu and Zhang, an ongoing study uncovers that 24% of web usersÃ¢â¬â¢ get to online surveys before paying for an assistance conveyed disconnected. Such audits have become a significant promoting instrument since organizations post data about their items, engineer online discussions and talks about the items where they proactively counsel their buyers to spread the good news of their items. Through utilization of web, organizations have figured out how to control customerÃ¢â¬â¢s audits and impact their choices (Zhu and Zhang, 2010). Chevalier and Mayzlin consent to the character of online clients that rely upon audits. They contend that client appraisals essentially impact item deals particularly in the bo ok business where clients read audit messages notwithstanding survey insights (Chevalier and Mayzlin, 2006) Secondly, an economic analyst must look to comprehend customerÃ¢â¬â¢s general shopping direction. The progression of World Wide Web has empowered numerous organizations to execute on the web and clients to do web shopping. Electronic shopping is developing by day and accordingly has become a significant pattern that impacts the business sectors. In this manner, to recognize the open door an analyst needs to distinguish the determinants of a customerÃ¢â¬â¢s online buy expectation. Since supervisors need to settle on a choice, the open door turns into the issue. A little example will help in understanding the effects of shopping directions. As indicated by Ling, an examination hurry to decide shopping directions, online trust, and earlier online buy understanding to the client buy goal uncovers that motivation buy expectation brand direction, quality direction, and earlier o nline experience have a positive effect on the client online buy goal (Ling, 2010). Web based shopping experience is not the same as the customary buyer conduct, which calls for advertisers to investigate the determinants of client online expectation among web customers. Forsythe and Shi agrees with this contention and states that web based shopping presents extraordinary dangers on the client, which makes trust a significant perspective for an exchange to happen (Forsythe, Shi,
Friday, August 21, 2020
purchase custom Covenants exposition Presentation A pledge is an understanding or arrangement between two gatherings and it ties them to a promise to one another; this may either be restrictive or unequivocal. There are 7 distinct contracts clarified in the book of scriptures; the Adamic, Noahic, Abrahamic, Davidic, Mosaic, Palestinian, and the New Covenant. These various pledges that are made in the Bible among God and his hirelings stay hostile to certain researchers (Soulen, 1981). This paper presents an artistic analysis with respect to every one of these pledges. Noahic Covenant This was a pledge among God and Noah found in the book of Genesis 6: 18; it likewise stretches out to Genesis 9:11. The agreement included Noah and the floods where God needed to demolish humankind for their corrupt ways (Showers, 1973). The rainbow was the indication of this pledge which would imply that God would not decimate man utilizing water once more; this would be seen by every single progressive age. The arrangements in the pledge were one-sided in that Noah had no jobs in the agreement and God would do his guarantees. It was everlasting, widespread and unqualified. Harless, (2004) censures this agreement in that it doesn't have a feeling of affirmation and that the main affirmed pledge in these readings is the Adamic contract. In deed he additionally expresses that since different pledges were from the theoretical contract of creation then this likewise stays speculative. Harless, (2004) considers it to be only a deal between the members since no commitment is put on Noah. Abrahamic Covenant The members were God, Abraham, his relatives and the Israelites. This is found in the book of Genesis 15: 18; 17: 4-8 and 19-21. The indication of the contract was the circumcision of the individuals which would go about as Gods promise to his kin. There are three guarantees in this contract where one was the individual agreement with Abraham, national guarantees, and general guarantees. The guarantee of the place that is known for Canaan to the Israelites and that Abraham would be a dad of an extraordinary country (Showers, 1990). This guarantee was unrestricted and Abraham can be supposed to be a dad of a country; then again the place where there is Canaan and the whole Nile area despite everything stay petulant in that there is despite everything war as of now (Harless, 2004). Davidic Covenant This coveant was made among God and David and is in the book of 2 Samuel 7: 8-19; this is viewed as an expansion of the Abrahamic pledge since David was a relative of Abraham. He guaranteed David an incredible name and security from his foes; moreover, his name, realm and genealogy would keep going forever and could never be discarded (Kline, 2000). This remaining parts in dispute since the realm of David isn't flawless till now yet this realm is accepted to be driven by Jesus Christ the guardian angel to the Christians. All things being equal, there are the individuals who don't accept and follow this religion (Ryrie, 2007). The New Covenant This agreement is at first uncovered in the book of Jeremiah 31: 31-34; it is accepted to be the augmentation of the Abrahamic pledge which depended on gift. The members were God and the individuals of Israel who were the physical relatives of Abraham. The guarantees given were recovery, absolution, the Holy Spirit, information and astuteness. This was unrestricted as the individuals of Israel required not to successfully get the guarantees (Blaising, Bock, 2010). The sign is accepted to be the blood of Jesus which he did emblematically during the last dinner with his followers. It shows this cup is the New Covenant in my blood Luke 22:20. It is likewise interminable as Christians keep taking communion and put stock in the absolution of transgression, the Holy Spirit, another heart and recovery. Adamic agreement incorporates the condemnations which were articulated to mankind after Adam and Eve did against the desire of God. After Eve was tricked by the fallen angel that comes to Adam in type of a Snake, when Adam and Eve trespassed against God they were advised to get out the Garden of Eden. The lady was reviled that she will consistently bear kids with torment while men will consistently work to get their nourishments yet when they were in the nursery they were being given food and beverages. Beforehand God had Edenic pledge which they should be accountable for the nursery, all the creatures and natural products which were in the nursery separated from one tree which was as the focal point of the nursery which they were advised never to eat it. When they broke this agreement then God entered in to another contract with them which is Ademic pledge (Elon, R. (2005). I do censure this contract since it was against the underlying will of the motivation behind why Adam and eve product put in the nursery. It appears as though God was enticing them as what was the explanation of being given authority of the various creatures and organic products in tthe garden and not exclusively to eat that one. It exposed them to enticement and its outcomes were extremely unforgiving. Palestinian Covenant was made between the Israelites and God directly before Moses kicked the bucket once they entered the Promised Land. At the point when the Israelites where in the wild was a result of the transgressions of the age which was from Egypt God Cursed them that none of them will enter to the guaranteed land and for a long time they were in the wild. God made this agreement at Moab when they were going to enter the Promised Land which was to serve the new age. God disclosed to them that in the event that they will comply with the Mosaic Law God will favor the country liberally yet on the off chance that they ignore the law the country will be reviled. He further guaranteed them that he will assemble the various Israelites who have scattered everywhere throughout the world and spot them at the contract land (Larondelle, 2005). I would reprimand this contract since its much like the Mosaic Law which was given to Moses in the interest of the Israelites which they didn't ob ey at quick and they must be in the wild for a long time. God would have quite recently reestablished the past contract and foreworn them on what their relatives looked because of unlawfulness. Mosaic agreement is a contingent pledge which realized Gods reviling on the off chance that they don't comply with the law or even gifts on the off chance that they adhere to the laws upon the country of Israel. The contract is distinctive different agreements because of its contingent nature that it is reliant on how the Israelites will live in the event that they obey Gods pledge they will be honored or they will rebuffed on the off chance that they defy them (Hillers, 1969). The fundamental motivation behind why the pledge is critical this is a direct result of how God guarantee was bound to make Israel a heavenly country and a realm of ministers. In spite of the fact that the religious community has the Gods future aim to the Israelites such would not have been accomplished if at all they don't do as per the law. There are noted shortcomings on the religious communities which are ascribed by the philosophy frameworks. This is being set in three different ways first it requires the contracts to be contrasted and various sacred texts which underpins them or not. Counting the prediction which God did comparable to the likely arrangements of the network being told, the subsequent analysis is according to the Mosaic pledge and the better religious community which was finished by Jesus in Hebrews 8:22 and 7:22 (The Holy Bible, 1999). The third issue is on how the New Testaments Church likens the Israelites. Purchase custom Covenants article
Tuesday, June 9, 2020
For many readers, MontaigneÃ¢â¬â¢s Selections from the Essays at first seems scattered both in rhetorical structure and topic. However, as one reads through the individual works, there is one concept that the diverse text consistently refers to: mans need to strive for freedom. Yet Montaigne did not seek to write an instructional philosophical work, like many other Renaissance writers; rather, he sought to utilize a unique writing style and reflective anecdotes to indirectly convey his message. Montaigne seeks to reveal to his readers, though his own eyes, how personal experience and reflection can lead to a higher degree of ontological freedom. One of the first and most crucial steps towards achieving a greater state of freedom is to realize that humans are significantly limited in scope and are not free when they are tangled in worldly affairs. In the scheme of life, a mere human being is practically nothing. In MontaigneÃ¢â¬â¢s words, man is Ã¢â¬Å"the most vulnerable and frai l of all creaturesÃ¢â¬ (59), one that is Ã¢â¬Å"neither above nor below the restÃ¢â¬ (60). This conclusion is based on the empirical instances of manÃ¢â¬â¢s limitations and instability, and an experienced man should recognize his own meager existence. Montaigne describes this conclusion with a simple metaphor; Ã¢â¬Å"To really learned men has happened what happens to ears of wheat; they rise high and lofty, heads erect and proud, as long as they are empty; but when they are full and swollen with grain in their ripeness, they begin to grow humble and lower their hornsÃ¢â¬ (62), where Ã¢â¬Å"ripenessÃ¢â¬ refers to the experienced condition of the learned man. Montaigne also uses this metaphor to subtly imply that man, like an ear of wheat, is subject only to the laws of nature, a point covered extensively in other areas of the text. Once a man has realized his relative insignificance in the world, he must limit his observations and conclusions to his own self, for Montai gne stresses that Ã¢â¬Å"we tell ourselves all we most needÃ¢â¬ (115). Additionally, Ã¢â¬Å"to hope to straddle more than the reach of our legs, is impossible and unnatural. Nor can man raise himself above himself and humanity; for he can see only with his own eyes, and seize only with his own graspÃ¢â¬ (71). The specific diction of Ã¢â¬Å"impossibleÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"unnaturalÃ¢â¬ support MontaigneÃ¢â¬â¢s previous statements about the limitations of man, demonstrating that not only is it arrogant to reach outside oneÃ¢â¬â¢s individual scope, but it is also an unattainable and abnormal hope to do so. Thus, one of the first steps towards achieving true freedom is realizing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s triviality and limitations in a more global environment. Once a man has circumscribed himself, he is in state much more conducive to individual growth and experience because he is capable of becoming free within himself. Montaigne himself has realized his confines, and he speaks in a refle ctive, first-person voice to remind readers that all men, including himself, are subject to these same boundaries. Furthermore, to reach a higher state of true freedom, man must acknowledge his inability to understand the transcendental reality of nature without divine aid. Montaigne describes this reality as Ã¢â¬Å"so divineÃ¢â¬ ¦and so far surpassing human intelligenceÃ¢â¬ ¦truth with which it has pleased the goodness of God to enlighten usÃ¢â¬ ¦by extraordinary and privileged favor, so that we may conceive it and lodge it in usÃ¢â¬ (54). Reason and Ã¢â¬Å"purely human meansÃ¢â¬ are not Ã¢â¬Å"at all capable of thisÃ¢â¬ (54), so it is necessary that God grants man the gift of an intrinsic understanding of Him and of nature, His creation. If an individual wants to achieve a pleasurable state of being through ontological freedom, he must first recognize from where his insight into what is pleasurable comes. If God is inherently good, then his creations are as well; as Mo ntaigne says; Ã¢â¬Å"Himself all good, he has made all things goodÃ¢â¬ (133). It follows, then, that Ã¢â¬Å"Nature always gives us happier laws than those we give ourselvesÃ¢â¬ (107). Human beings can recognize the imperfections in the manmade society around them solely because they have been granted the awareness of what is perfect: God and nature. The only things that humans can say truly exist are those supernatural concepts that are perfect; as Montaigne describes: Ã¢â¬Å"what really is? That which is eternal: that is to say, what never had a birth, nor will ever have an end, to which time never brings any changeÃ¢â¬ (70). Once a man has realized that he has been given the intrinsic idea of what is perfect and eternal, he can utilize that gift in his journey to achieve true freedom. In fact, Montaigne praises the man who does so: Ã¢â¬Å"it isÃ¢â¬ ¦a very fine and very laudable enterprise to accommodate also to the service of our faith the natural and human tools that G od has given us,Ã¢â¬ so Ã¢â¬Å"we apply even our limbs and movements and external things to honor himÃ¢â¬ (54-55). MontaigneÃ¢â¬â¢s references to physical entities imply that there is a concrete, corporeal aspect to the faith that depends on the abstract concept of God-infused awareness of the eternal. Using the adjective Ã¢â¬Å"happierÃ¢â¬ to describe the laws of nature makes the eternal seem appealing and enjoyable. Therefore, part of obtaining true freedom involves aligning oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and bodily proceedings with oneÃ¢â¬â¢s faith in God and nature, his creation. This alignment will in turn bring a man greater happiness. An awareness and response to the apparent inconsistency in manÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior is also necessary for true freedom to be established. Oscillation in human actions is blatantly obvious when observing real life, and in fact Montaigne dedicates an entire chapter of Essays to developing this idea. For instance, he states, Ã¢â¬Å"Those who make a practice of comparing human actions are never so perplexed as when they try to see them as a wholeÃ¢â¬ ¦for they commonly contradict each other so strangelyÃ¢â¬ (41). Terminology such as Ã¢â¬Å"perplexedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"strangely,Ã¢â¬ often used to describe this obvious fluctuation, implies that such behavior is highly unnatural. Man acts predominantly according to his reason. Therefore, aside from forming a correlation between oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and faith, it is necessary to line up oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reason with the laws of nature. Nature itself is consistent, and Montaigne describes his own experience of its consistency: Ã¢â¬Å"In this universe of things I ignorantly and negligently let myself be guided by the general law of the worldÃ¢â¬ ; yet Ã¢â¬Å"It is folly to hope [for nature to modify itself], and greater folly to be troubled about it, since it is necessarily uniform, public, and commonÃ¢â¬ (114). Thus, it remains that manÃ¢â¬â¢s reason is one of the main ca uses for inconsistent actions, and must be adapted to the consistency of nature. This includes accepting pleasures and pains, good and evil. Montaigne informs his reader that Ã¢â¬Å"Our existence is impossible without this mixture, and one element is no less necessary for it than the otherÃ¢â¬ (120). It is natural for man to enjoy pleasures that nature has given them, for Ã¢â¬Å"Pleasure is one of the principal kinds of profitÃ¢â¬ (119), and Ã¢â¬Å"nature has placed it in our hands adorned with such favorable conditions that we have only ourselves to blame if it weighs on us and if it escapes us unprofitablyÃ¢â¬ (130). Pleasures such as sex, eating, and drinking are not only enjoyable, they are Ã¢â¬Å"actions [nature] has enjoined on us for our needÃ¢â¬ (126). If pleasures are natural, nature is GodÃ¢â¬â¢s creation, and God is innately good, it follows that pleasures are only perceived as bad because of constructs that are unnatural and inconsistent. Montaigne argues t hrough metaphor that humans should be free and open to what nature brings them: Ã¢â¬Å"We are all wind. And even the wind, more wisely than we, loves to make a noise and move about, and is content with its own functions, without wishing for stability and solidity, qualities that do not belong to itÃ¢â¬ (124). So ontological freedom arises from accepting the pleasures and pains of nature, profiting from them by aligning oneÃ¢â¬â¢s reasoning with nature, and releasing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s unnatural desire for stability. Wishing for stability is pointless because stability is not something that can be accomplished through human means. Additional actions are necessary to truly escape the corruption of manmade societies what Montaigne calls Ã¢â¬Å"artÃ¢â¬ and reach true freedom. One of these processes involves rejecting the fabricated Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"truth,Ã¢â¬ and other absolutes that have been created in the past, as well as the structure in society that has arise n according to them. If the world is in a constant state of flux, it is impossible to state that at any given point, a particular object or truth exists. As Montaigne states: Ã¢â¬Å"we no longer know what things are in truth; for nothing comes to us except falsified and altered by our sensesÃ¢â¬ (67). The only truths, knowledge, and absolutes are what God has implanted into manÃ¢â¬â¢s mind, and his senses exist only to work with those fixed ideas. For one to experience true freedom, he must release his attachment to all arbitrarily crafted human concepts: Ã¢â¬Å"he will rise by abandoning and renouncing his own meansÃ¢â¬ (71). Structured religions and political laws are among the most critiqued forms of art in the Essays, for they represent manufactured paradigms that cannot possibly be beneficial for one trying to achieve ontological freedom. Religious beliefs are often based on customs born in history, rather than faith. This represents one of the worst forms of art, becau se it prevents humans from discovering the true faith that has been granted to them, and is subjective with regards to cultural diversity: Ã¢â¬Å"Another region, other witnesses, similar promises and threats, might imprint upon us in the same way a contrary beliefÃ¢â¬ (58). Montaigne also criticizes religions for their attitude towards vice: Ã¢â¬Å"Our religion is made to extirpate vices; it covers them, fosters them, incites themÃ¢â¬ (57). If a religion cannot accept and reason with both good and vice, then according to previously discussed definitions it is unnatural and abnormal. Political laws also infringe upon the laws of nature, for Ã¢â¬Å"There is little relation between our actions, which are in perpetual mutation, and fixed and immutable lawsÃ¢â¬ (107). A given set of laws, crafted by reviewing a few hundred cases, can never fairly apply to every diverse circumstance. Montaigne is especially critical of his own French political system, stating that Ã¢â¬Å"Their co mmands are so confused and inconsistent that they are some excuse for both disobedience and faulty interpretation, administration, and observanceÃ¢â¬ (113). Again, connotations of unnatural concepts are present throughout MontaigneÃ¢â¬â¢s discussions, subtly supporting his ideas by creating a tense and highly critical atmosphere. Rather than conforming to these strict codes, Montaigne advises: Ã¢â¬Å"Relaxation and affability, it seems to me, are marvelously honorable and most becoming to a strong and generous soulÃ¢â¬ (127). By providing the reader with brief literary relief to the built-up atmosphere, Montaigne offers an alternative to the corruption previously discussed. In reference to both religious and political institutions, Montaigne reminds his readers: Ã¢â¬Å"To compose our character is our duty, not to compose booksÃ¢â¬ (126). Clearly, then, the two activities do not coincide in society. A second action that is important to the development of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s stat e of freedom is to constantly exercise that freedom in his judgment. Judgment is the mechanism that determines how an individual will respond to a particular experience. Although ultimately judgment is left up to God, humans should still take advantage of their own resources and exploit them for the purpose of cultivating their relationship with nature. Judgment often consists of evaluating a behavior in terms of the circumstances or appetites that helped set it in motion, though Montaigne reminds his reader that one should do so Ã¢â¬Å"without getting into any further research and without drawing from them any other conclusionsÃ¢â¬ (44). Additionally, Montaigne encourages humans to disregard misleading senses when practicing their judgment, for Ã¢â¬Å"whoever judges by appearances judges by something other than the objectÃ¢â¬ (68). Essentially, judgment should exist to critique deceiving appearances. Together, rejection of absolutes and structured institutions and the practic e of individual judgment are ongoing processes that break one apart from the corruption of art. This break is necessary for achieving ontological freedom because it brings one further from art and closer to nature. Judgment gives man the flexibility to experience nature with his own self because it breaks through the corruption and appearances which surround existence. Montaigne indirectly encourages his readers to foster their own ontological freedom. He does not provide his reader with a list of instructions for how to live their lives, but rather seeks to exemplify the philosophies that he presents. Ontological freedom is cultivated by aligning oneself with nature in all ways. Complete alignment of manÃ¢â¬â¢s reason and judgment with nature, along with a recognition of human limitations and inconsistencies, will bring man as close as possible to this true freedom.
Sunday, May 17, 2020
I decided to surf the internet in search of inspiration, and I found it on the mediate.com website. Robert BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s article Ã¢â¬Å"Hotel Rwanda and the Guerrilla NegotiatorÃ¢â¬ definitely caught my eyeÃ¢â¬ ¦particularly since I had checked the DVD out from the library last Friday but hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t yet watched it. BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s article piqued my interest enough to do some additional research on Rwanda, and passion was born. While a colony of Belgium, Rwanda was separated into two tribal groups which many say was based on physical characteristics such as the wideness of the nose: the common Tutsi (majority), and the upper-class Hutu (minority). For many years, the Tutsis were powerful and mistreated the Hutus. In 1962, Rwanda gained its independence fromÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As the UN refugee camp reached overload, Rusesabagina is continually asked to provide sanctuary for more Tutsi refugees. Through continued wheeling, dealing, and manipulation, Rusesabagina is directly responsible for saving the 1,268 lives. He and his wife adopted two surviving nieces and now reside with them and their own three children in Belgium. Benjamin points out that almost every scene in the film showcases the power of negotiation Ã¢â¬Å"as a means of survival even in the face of vile and irrational human behaviorÃ¢â¬ , adding Ã¢â¬Å"there is much to be gleaned from the gritty style of negotiation that is compelled in those circumstances.Ã¢â¬ Benjamin calls this Ã¢â¬Å"guerrilla negotiationÃ¢â¬ , adding Ã¢â¬Å"borne out of necessity, not ideology, he or she operates solely by their own wits, earning credibility and trading on their ability to convey a personal sense of authenticity.Ã¢â¬ Armed with BenjaminÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective in my mind, I found it easy to spot the ongoing negotiation he notedÃ¢â¬ ¦and just as easily realized I probably wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have categorized it as such if I hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t read the article first. Clearly, Rusesabagina reads people exceedingly well, recognizes what it will take to get what he wants/needs from them, masterfully communicates what they need to hear, and triumphs. Perhaps the most moving example in the movie is when Rusesabagina is ordered to execute his own family and instead manages to buy their safety.Show MoreRelated Hotel Rwanda Essay607 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesHotel Rwanda Some people canÃ¢â¬â¢t resist trying to be someone they really arenÃ¢â¬â¢t. In the film Hotel Rwanda, the main character changed his own styles just to fit in with the Europeans and think that the Europeans will treat them as if he was a real European. And when times of crisis come along, he finds out that the Europeans have always looked down at them. After that, he understands that what heÃ¢â¬â¢s been doing was not himself and he changes. Paul RusesabaginaRead MoreEssay on Rwanda Genocide Compared with Hotel Rwanda2521 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagescentral African country of Rwanda. The Hutus and the Tutsis, two ethnic groups within Rwanda, have been at continual unrest for the past half a century. During the 100 day massacre of 1994, a murder occurred every two seconds; resulting in 18% of the Tutsi population being killed. A decade after the war, in 2004, the film Hotel Rwanda was released. The film followed the story of a Hutu man; Paul Rusesabagina as he housed over 1200 Tutsi refugees in his hotel. The Hotel De Milles Collines, a five-starRead MoreMovie Analysis : Hotel Rwanda1519 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe based on a true story trademark of the film Hotel Rwanda has implications for genocidal memory, post genocidal peace and reconciliation, and the promotion of heroism amid the udder chaos that engulfed the country. The film ultimately illustrates an oversimplified, ideologically driven version of the 1994 mass acre. It emphasizes the role of a Hollywood hero, rather than the deeply rooted and complex factors at the center of the violence, leading to popular opinion of the Hutu population as barbaricRead MoreMovie Report : On The Hotel Rwanda1237 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages For my movie report I watched the the film on the Hotel Rwanda (2004), which follows the true-life story of the war in Rwanda between the Hutu and Tutsi tribes. When the Hutu tribe wants redemption from the Tutsi rule which left them in repression by the Belgiums, the HutuÃ¢â¬â¢s create violent militas, war gangs, and set out to murder almost a million people in the length of this awful genocide that the UN restrained from becoming involved in. Once the assassination of the President Habyarimana occursRead MoreMovie Review : Hotel Rwanda2038 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesHotel Rwanda is a film that made me cry many times throughout the film. This film most definitely goes to show how cruel many people in this world can be. This fi lm is about the genocide in Rwanda where thousands of TutsiÃ¢â¬â¢s were killed because they were being blamed for everything going wrong in the country. It appears that many people want someone to blame for their own losses and troubles so they will go as far as to attempt to murder a whole group of people. In Hotel Rwanda, the film begins withRead MoreHotel Rwanda By Terry George975 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPossibly the saddest and most tragic event that occurred in the last few decades was the genocide of the Tutsi population in Rwanda by the Hutu led government and Hutu people of the same country. Hotel Rwanda by Terry George is a film adaption of the experiences of a Tutsi hotel manager Paul Rusesabagina who sheltered and kept safe several thousand Hutu refugees during the genocide. This film clearly portrays its major themes such as ethnic conflict, the lack of human rights, and many other socialRead MoreTaking a Look at Hotel Rwanda600 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagesreceived from the Tutsis, they did not even initiate themselves to come help the Tutsis. This is viewed as such a bad thing that they did due to them obviously not being all together and apart of the same group because they did not even go to help Rwanda when they claimed that they would be the ones to help keep peace between eve ryone. It took a long time for the UN to actually step in, this is inferred through the movie and the 100 days that the genocide lasted, just think if the UN would of steppedRead MoreDr. Morris s Hotel Rwanda1067 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMorris Video Review Paper Hotel Rwanda The Rwandan genocide occurred in 1994 between the two prevalent ethnic groups in Rwanda, the Hutu and the Tutsi. Hotel Rwanda documents the plight of Paul Rusesabagina, a hotel manager, who opens his hotel as a shelter for the Tutsi people during the Rwandan genocide, saving thousands of lives in the processes. Through bribes Rusesabagina was able to keep thousands of Tutsi people from death. Like many other African states, Rwanda was colonized by a EuropeanRead MoreNight and Hotel Rwanda Similarities Essay1009 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNight and Hotel Rwanda Similarities Throughout the course of humanity, we have experienced terrible transgressions in our society. Although they took place sixty-one years apart, similar horrific events from the Holocaust (1933-1945) and the Rwandan Genocide (1994) occurred. In Night, the Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state sponsored persecution and murder of approximately 6 million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. The Nazis believed they were Ã¢â¬Å"racially superiorÃ¢â¬ Read MoreMy Personal Reaction On Hotel Rwanda Essay933 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Hotel Rwanda Introduction In this essay I will write of my personal reaction on the movie Hotel Rwanda. This movie left me with a plethora of mixed emotions. Yet, it taught me many lessons on life and the world. From its historical background to its most recent movie filmed in 2004. Background Information Mille Collines was the main setting of this movie. It was a four-star hotel located in Kigali, Rwanda where Americans, French, and many more tourists would go for a calm oasis. Kigali
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As spectators we are normally passive onlookers of the action taking place. The only influence we can have over the outcome is by making the participants aware of our support by cheering, or of our anger and frustration at an action by chanting and booing. We place our trust in the officials and referees to ensure that strict guidelines and rules are adhered to throughout the action. As spectators we are also commentators expressing our opinions regarding the actions of the participants and the officials. As spectators we can empathise with the emotions of the participants and feel extreme jubilation or extreme disappointment depending on whether you are supporting the winning or losing side. In this essay I will be discussing whether theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Let us then go away and sit down together off the path at a viewing place, and let the men take care of the fightingÃ¢â¬â¢ (20.135-137), and Apollo and Ares also stop fighting, Ã¢â¬Ëso they on either side took thei r places, deliberating counsels, reluctant on both sides to open the sorrowful attackÃ¢â¬â¢ (20.153-155). But Zeus was not happy about this and Ã¢â¬Ësitting on high above urged them onÃ¢â¬â¢ (20.155). Zeus is the main spectator, whose role it is to act as the impartial Ã¢â¬ËrefereeÃ¢â¬â¢ ensuring that the laws of the universe are observed. These laws known as Ã¢â¬Ëthe justice of ZeusÃ¢â¬â¢ (1.239) fall into two categories; natural law or Ã¢â¬Ëthe divinely appointed order of the universeÃ¢â¬â¢ and moral law, whereby Zeus Ã¢â¬Ëpunishes, late or soon, a man who has done injustice to another, either in his own person or in that of his descendantsÃ¢â¬â¢. But sometimes Zeus forgets the rules of natural law, and has to be challenged by Hera and the other gods to ensure that every humanÃ¢â¬â¢s predestined fate is allowed to follow its natural course. When, in Book 4, Zeus suggests ending the war by giving victory to Menelaus and saving the lives of many of Trojan peoples, Hera rebukes him with Ã¢â¬ËDo it then; but not all the rest of us gods will approve youÃ¢â¬â¢ (4.29). The most tragic decision Zeus has to make is when his own son Sarpedon is being mortally wound ed in Book 16 and he ponders, Ã¢â¬Ëwhether I should snatch him out of the sorrowful battle and set him down still alive in the rich country ofShow MoreRelatedThe Temple Of Zeus At Olympia, Heroes, And Athletes1693 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Idara Rodriguez. Review of J.M Barringer, Ã¢â¬Å"The Temple of Zeus at Olympia, Heroes, and AthletesÃ¢â¬ , 2005, pp. 211-241 I chose to review Judith BarringerÃ¢â¬â¢s article on the topic of why the sculpture works inside the Temple of Zeus should be looked at as a whole collective ensemble. This is because they would provide insight into how these works were seen and how they were closely related to Olympia and all the activity that occurred there. Judith Barringer also discusses how these sculptures literallyRead MoreGreek Mythology8088 Words Ã |Ã 33 PagessuggestÃ theÃ formerÃ grandeurÃ ofÃ theÃ ancientÃ temple.Ã BernardÃ Cox/BridgemanÃ ArtÃ Library,Ã London/NewÃ YorkÃ GreekÃ Mythology,Ã setÃ ofÃ diverseÃ traditionalÃ talesÃ toldÃ byÃ theÃ ancientÃ GreeksÃ aboutÃ theÃ exploitsÃ ofÃ godsÃ andÃ heroesÃ andÃ theirÃ relationsÃ withÃ ordinaryÃ mortals.Ã TheÃ ancientÃ GreeksÃ worshipedÃ manyÃ godsÃ withinÃ aÃ cultureÃ thatÃ toleratedÃ diversity.Ã UnlikeÃ otherÃ beliefÃ systems,Ã GreekÃ cultureÃ recognizedÃ noÃ singleÃ truthÃ orÃ codeÃ andÃ producedÃ noÃ sacred,Ã writtenÃ textÃ likeÃ theÃ BibleÃ orÃ theÃ QurÃ¢â¬â¢an.Ã StoriesÃ abRead MoreEugene OÃ¢â¬â¢neill and the the Rebirth of Tragedy a Comparative Survey on Mourning Becomes Electra and Oresteia2317 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesideas of the German critique and philosopher guided his dramatic works, in which he manifested the ability to adapt the defining characteristics of the classical tragedy to a modern script and audience. Thus, it is not surprising that we encounter God Dio nysus in Ã¢â¬Å"Lazarus LaughedÃ¢â¬ (1928) or an adaptation of OedipusÃ¢â¬â¢ character in Ã¢â¬Å"Desire Under the Elms(1924). As for Ã¢â¬Å"Mourning Becomes ElectraÃ¢â¬ (1931), OÃ¢â¬â¢Neill explores Greek tragedy, attempting to modernize it. The play is based on AeschylusÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreHistory of Theatre Lesson Notes Essay5401 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesancient Egypt become relatively static after a period of dynamisms and these ten to establish and perpetuate ritualized conventions that alter little over centuries of time. Western myth-dominant concern is the relationship between two types of beings-god and humans-and the tension between the roles assigned to each, world came to be seen primarily from the human point of view-as a place of conflict, change, and progress-with humanity as the principal agent both for good and evil. Eastern myth-people
Question: Discuss About The Quantitative Tools Addressing Readmissions? Answer: Introduction: Repeated hospitalisation is mainly dependent on the type and severity of psychiatric disorder. Repeated hospitalisation also reflects environmental and social aspects. Along with this, it also reflects deficiencies in pre and post discharge treatment. Readmissions can affect both patients and their families and hospitals1. Both patient families and hospital can experience psychological strain and financial burden. Hospital readmissions can be prevented by providing holistic care during the hospital stay, planned discharge and transition and adequate follow-up. Reduction in the hospital readmissions can be helpful in improving acceptance of the psychiatric patient in the society and improving confidence of the patient2. Usually, hospital readmissions within 30 days is considered as poor clinical outcome in case of psychiatric disorders. This accounting outcome might be due to inadequate community-based care after discharge, self-care and difficulties in adherence to the psychiatric medication. It has been estimated that approximately 9 % patients with principal mood disorders were readmitted and 12 % patients with any diagnosis of mood disorders were readmitted. It has been estimated that approximately 16 % patients with principal schizophrenia were readmitted and 19 % patients with any diagnosis of schizophrenia were readmitted. Adequate care at home can be used as a good indicator for reduced readmission for psychiatric disorders. However, it has been estimated that only 1 6 % patients with mood disorders and schizophrenia receive proper care at home3. Initial cost for the management of psychiatric disorders is lower as compared to the other conditions. However, readmission cost for psychiatric d isorders is more as compared to other disorders. As compared to other conditions, patients with psychiatric conditions like mood and schizophrenia are with more discharge disposition of home-care or self-care. 89 % patients with mood disorders and 78 % patients with schizophrenia are with discharge disposition of home-care or self-care. 62 % patients with other than psychiatric conditions are with discharge disposition of home-care or self-care4. Mood disorder and schizophrenia are the major causes of hospital readmissions along with other causes like alcohol related disorders and substance related disorders. Male patients (14 %) are more prone to readmissions as compared to the female patients (12 %). 12.5 %, 14.5 % and 12.6 % patients were readmitted between age group 18-44, 45-64 and above 65 respectively. Patient level predictors of hospital readmissions can be confounding however system level predictors like capacity, structure or treatment of organisation can be definite predictors of hospital readmissions. Patient level predictors like length of stay and patient receiving aftercare are the confounding predictors of hospital readmissions. To determine whether counselling delivered telephonically by mental health professional instantly followed by discharge is efficient in reducing risks of hospital readmissions according to interRAI MH. Design and setting: A matched cross over study will be implemented for the reduction of hospital readmission for psychiatric patients. This pre-post-test design study will be conducted between January 1, 2016 to October 31, 2016. Pre and post test, can be helpful in evaluating impact of intervention because parameters prior to and after completion of intervention can be compared in the same population. Pre and post intervention can be useful in measuring value addition to the samples in the programme. This programme will be implemented in the 15 hospitals of the Ontario Hospital Association and Health Quality Ontario. Evaluation of the implemented programme will be carried out between January 2016 to October 2016. In this study, 2000 patients will be enrolled from the different Ontario Hospitals based on the mentioned exclusion and inclusion criteria. These number of patients will be enrolled because it will give power for statistical significance. Out of these, 1000 patients will be randomised to the c ontrol arm. For control arm patients, normal discharge will be provided followed by normal care. Remaining 1000 patients will be randomised to intervention arm and to these patients normal discharge will be provided followed by telephone based . Telephone based counselling will be provided for the duration of 4 weeks. Blocked randomisation schedule and two sets of sealed envelopes will be prepared for the randomisation. One set of envelop will be labelled as control arm and another as intervention arm. Patients will be allowed to open the folders and they will be allocated to control and intervention arm based on their envelops5. Inclusion criteria: Patients enrolled in the study need to meet following criteria : a) all the patients should be above age 18 years, b) should be admitted to the hospital for more than 4 hours, c) patients should be discharged home, d) should have working telephone, e) should speak English, f) devoid of medical record of cognitive impairment, g) screen positive for mood disorder and schizophrenia and g) should have life expectancy of more than 90 days. Exclusion criteria: a) patient should not be planned for inpatient rehabilitation, nursing home or other healthcare facilities after discharge, b) suicidal tendency, c) alcohol and/or drug dependence, and d) in police custody6. Strengths and limitations: Strengths: Environmental factors can influence internal validity of study design. However, in this study, control group will be incorporated along with intervention group. Hence, it would be helpful in neutralising environmental effect. Population external validity will be the strength of this study because results of this study can not be generalised to patients without intervention for psychiatric disorders. Limitations: Maturation and carryover effect can affect internal validity in this study design. Maturation can occur due to change in participants for pre-test to post-test. Carryover effect occur due to influence of pre-test on the outcome of post-test. Ecological external validity can be limitation in this study design because home environment can be different from the hospital environment7, 8. Though this study is associated with limitations, this study is more useful as compared to other designs because it gives data about the real world study. Results of this study can be used as evidence for the future studies. Control and intervention groups can be compared in this study. Statistical power can be obtained in this study. Rationale for evaluation programme: Data related to hospital readmissions will be collected for the duration of 6 months. Evaluation of the programme will be helpful for the amendment and improvement of the evaluation programme. For the reduction of the hospital readmissions, counselling should be provided to the patients and family members. Hence, telephone-based counselling will be provided to reduce risk of hospital readmissions. Risks of readmissions include interRAI variables like prior hospitalizations, greater severity in several clinical conditions such as psychosis, presence of a secondary substance use diagnosis, and being unemployed. Counselling will comprise of aspects like improve patient engagement and adherence to the intervention9. Data collection: There are different sources of data like existing data and new data. Existing data comprising of information given by OHA/HQO and HIS. It includes health service use, diagnoses, living arrangements and employment, mental health symptoms, substance use, and functioning, and rehospitalization CAP. New data will be collected by trained research nurse. Equivalent data will be collected pre-intervention and post-intervention. After the completion of four weeks counselling sessions to the patients, telephone survey will be conducted to assess hospital readmission status and treatment utilization for psychiatric condition. Data will comprise of baseline data of patients, duration of index hospitals stay, diagnosis during hospital admission, symptoms and comorbidities. Information related to living conditions, employment status, abusive substance use and functioning will also be collected. Data related to hospital admissions in the six months prior to index admission will also be collected. Health information system (HIS) will be helpful in gathering personalised information about the patient in terms of discharge summaries, prescribed medicines, results of diagnostic laboratory test, clinical and imaging biomarkers. HIS will be helpful in improving patient safety, improving quality of intervention and avoiding unnecessary readmissions10. Dependent variables: Period between discharge and readmission will be considered as the dependent variable. Collected data like baseline data of patients, duration of index hospitals stay, diagnosis during hospital admission and comorbidities will be corelated with readmissions within timeline of 30, 60 and 90 days. Readmissions within 30, 60 and 90 days will be compared with each other. It will be helpful in corelating severity of disease, type of disease, prescribed medicines and age of the patient with each of the readmission timeline. This programme will also assess the measures for readmission of the psychiatric patients. Readmission data will be helpful in answering the proposal question11,12. Independent variables : Demographic factors, medical treatment and healthcare utilization are the risk factors mainly responsible for the readmission of psychiatric patients. Demographic factors include sex, age, income and management level. Age will be important independent variable because with the increase in the age there will be more severity of the psychiatric disease. Comparison among male and female will be analysed for hospital readmissions because from the literature it is evident that male is more prone to hospital readmissions as compared to female. This study will be helpful in further validating more susceptibility of male towards hospital readmissions. Unemployment and illiteracy are the prominent reasons responsible for the hospital readmissions in the psychiatric patients. Hence, income and education level will be assessed as independent variable in this study. Accurate administration of the medicines for psychiatric conditions and adequate utilization of healthcare facilities will be helpf ul in reducing hospital readmissions11,12. Evaluation strategy: This proposal will incorporate engagement of the skilled healthcare professionals for the evaluation of hospital readmissions. It will also include training for medical professionals for evaluation of hospital readmissions. Healthcare professional will be trained for compilation, analysis and interpretation of the results. Fixed tabular formats will be prepared for compilation of the results. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) will be used for the analysis the data. Trained statistician will be recruited for the statistical evaluation of the data13. Several activities will be planned for the effective evaluation of the implemented programme for hospital readmission reduction programme. Medical and nursing staff will be trained for the discharge activities and readmission evalaution by programme coordinator. On monthly basis meetings will be implemented for the evaluation of implementation of the programme. Stakeholders of this meeting will comprise of project coordinator, the staff nurses and medical specialist, senior level registered nurse and residents. Different interRAI variables like prior hospitalizations, greater severity in several clinical conditions such as psychosis, presence of a secondary substance use diagnosis, and being unemployed will be enquired by the stakeholders of the evaluation programme. Comparison will be done for these interRAI indicators before and after the implementation of the programme. Telephonic call will be arranged for recruited patients twice a week for the duration of four weeks14. Outcomes: Primary endpoint of this programme will be hospital readmission within 30 days followed by within 60 days and 90 days. Hospital readmissions will be measured in two different ways : 1) data retrieval from the hospital records and 2) self-reporting by the patients. Secondary outcomes will include length of hospital stay after readmission, time to hospital readmission, frequency and duration of readmission, total number of general practitioner or emergency department visits and patient satisfaction in discharge process. Separate medical records will be maintained for the patients, those cant be contacted within four weeks of counselling session15,16. In the initial phase, balance of patient characteristics will be measured because it should be equally distributed among control and intervention group due to randomisation. Descriptive statistics will be used for the analysis of patient psychiatric characteristics. Differences between the pre and post test will be evaluated by applying chi-square or Student t-tests. Statistical analysis will be carried out separately for hospital readmissions within 30, 90 and 180 days. Percentage of hospital readmissions in the individual hospitals will be calculated. Readmission rate will be compared with varied factors like patient related factors (demographic status, educational status, living conditions and employment status), disease related factors (severity of the disease, types of symptoms) and hospital related factors (utilization of healthcare facilities). Biasness due to different set up of hospitals will be reduced by categorising hospitals in the different groups. External validity wil l be monitored by controlling hospital characteristics. These hospital characteristics include region, hospital proximity and patient discharge volume. Subgroup analysis will also be performed. Patients admitted to the hospital prior to the index hospitalisation will be at higher risk of readmission. Hence, subgroup analysis is required in these patients. Age, sex, discharge diagnosis and total number of readmissions in the last six months prior to index admission will be used as covariates or confounding factors2, 17, 18. Hospital readmissions evaluation programme can be affected by multiple factors like evaluation design, variables affecting design and outcome of the evaluation programme, alternatives to hospital readmissions, changes in readmissions with respect to different patient and impact of different stakeholders in the evaluation programme. Hence, multivariate analysis will be used in this evaluation programme because it can give statistical outcome considering multiple fa ctors. Confidence interval will be computed from the observed data. For each parameter confidence interval will be computed for prior and after hospital readmission. 5 % confidence interval will be considered as statistically significant. Comparison will be made prior and hospital admission. Table 1 : Evaluation team involved in programme will be as follows19 : Team Members Role and task Principal investigator Main task in the evaluation process is to oversee evaluation implementation, submitting reports and having ultimate responsibility of the program. Project coordinating person Trained statistician Internal evaluator The main role will be overseeing administrative and fiscal functions Statistics task. Internal evaluator will be responsible in conducting surveys, gathering information and analyzing data External evaluator This will be responsible in designing and guiding the evaluation process of the program process. He/she will review internal findings, engaging in external assessments and offers reports to funder. Table 2 : Baseline characteristics of study population20,21 Characteristics Pre-test Post-test Patients (n) 1000 1000 Age, mean (SD), years Male % Female % Employment status Employed Un-employed Educational status Schooling College Graduation Readmission to the hospital within 6 months of index admissions Length of index hospital stay Table What is the prevalence of the problem? Does the patients status affected by mood status, history of hospitalization, substance abuse, living status, employment status ? How many individuals are participating? What are the changes in performance? How many/what resources are used during implementation? How many participants are attending telephonic counselling sessions ? Is there a change in quality of life? Is there a change in health measures? Is there a difference between before and after? Has the patient displayed potential risk as per CAP guideline? What is the readmission frequency of the patient, 30,90 or 180 ? What is the first readmission time for 30, 90 and 180 days time points ? What is first readmission duration for first readmission for 30, 90 and 180 days time points ? HIS Table 4: Healthcare utilization and patient satisfaction four weeks during counselling20,21 Characteristics Pre-test Post-test Cl value Patients (n) 1000 1000 Length of index hospital stay Readmissions Readmissions within 30 days Readmissions within 60 days Readmissions within 90 days Time for first readmission Number of readmissions within 30, 60 and 90 days. Duration of first readmission Other healthcare utilization General practitioner visits Emergency department visits Patient satisfaction with discharge procedure Table 5: Programme outcome and outcome measures20,21: Outcome Outcome measures Clinical efficacy Whether psychiatric symptoms will be improved in the intervention group as compared to the control group Patient efficacy Whether intervention group will he having less number of hospital readmissions as compared to the control group. Healthcare staff fidelity Healthcare professionals execution of the programme protocol will be evaluated: How many post-discharge counselling sessions will be attended by healthcare professional telephonically. How much time healthcare professional will spend on each post-discharge counselling session. How much time healthcare professional will spend on weekly post-discharge counselling session. Success in recruitment and randomization How many actually enrolled patients will be eligible for participation in the programme. Record will be maintained for the drop-out participants prior to completion of the study. Baseline characteristics of both control and intervention arm will be compared. Success of counselling session Percent participants receiving counselling session. Percent participants attending primary healthcare providers within two weeks of discharge. Percent participants contacted telephonically post-discharge. References: Mittenberg W, Canyock EM, Condit D, Patton C. Treatment of post-concussion syndrome following mild head injury. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology. 2001; 23(6):829-36. Kansagara D, Englander H, Salanitro A, et al. Risk prediction models for hospital readmission: a systematic review. JAMA. 2011; 306:1688-98. Allaudeen N, Vidyarthi A, Maselli J, Auerbach A. Redefining readmission risk factors for general medicine patients. 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Manual and automated methods for identifying potentially preventable readmissions: a comparison in a large healthcare system. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2014 ;14:28. doi: 10.1186/1472-6947-14-28. Stubenrauch JM. Project RED Reduces Hospital Readmissions. Am J Nurs. 2015;115(10):18-9. doi: 10.1097/01.NAJ.0000471935.08676.ca.